Bibliography of Planned Languages (excluding Esperanto)

edited by Richard K. Harrison
copyright 1992-1995 by Richard K. Harrison

Table of Contents

0. Introduction
1. Interlinguistics
2. Volapuk
3. Ido
4. Ro
5. Occidental/Interlingue
6. Novial
7. Interlingua
8. Glosa
9. Modified English
10. Latin and Modified Latin
11. Pasigraphies and Number Languages
12. `a priori' and Mixed Languages
13. `a posteriori' Languages


During the past three or four centuries, proposals for hundreds of planned languages have been published, and some of these projects have managed to attract a number of followers. Many of these language designs are very interesting from a linguistic, philosophical or psychological point of view. Unfortunately, it is often very difficult to find information about planned langauges other than Esperanto. I have compiled this bibliography in hopes of making such information more accessible.

Obtaining the materials listed here ranges from easy to nearly impossible, depending on the item. If a book or brochure is listed in this bibliography with a `call number,' i.e. a Dewey decimal number or Library of Congress classification number, that particular item is likely to be available via Inter-Library Loan; your local library will probably be able to obtain it for you if they participate in the Inter-Library Loan system. Older items can often be obtained by requesting photo-copies from other planned language enthusiasts. A handful of the items listed here are still in print and available from bookstores.

Please inform me of significant errors or omissions so that future versions may be more complete and more useful. (I have not tried to copy every reference from every bibliography that has ever been published on this topic. For the most part, I have limited the items included here to those which could actually be obtained with a reasonable amount of effort, and those which are well-known or historically important within the constructed language milieu.) You can send me e-mail or contact me by snail-post at:
Rick Harrison
Box 54-7014
Orlando FL 32854 USA.

chapter 1


This section lists materials that pertain to language creation in general, the history of planned languages, criticism and comparison of various projects, bibliographies, etc.

Barnes, Myra E.
Linguistics and languages in science fiction - fantasy
New York: Arno Press, 1974 (196 p.)
PS 374.S35

Bausani, Alessandro (1921- )
Geheim- und Universalsprachen, Entwicklung und Typologie
Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1970
PM 8008.B3

Bausani, Alessandro
Le lingue inventate. Linguaggi artificiali, linguaggi segreti, linguaggi universali
Roma: Ubaldini, 1974 (151 p.)
PM 8008.B34

Blanke, Detlev
Internationale Plansprachen, eine Einfuehrung
Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1985 (408 p.)
PM 8008.B53
[a well-organized overview, somewhat pro-Esperanto]

Bodmer, Frederick
The loom of language
New York: Norton, 1985
P 106.B583
[includes an opinionated introduction to the international auxiliary language milieu]

Brugmann, Karl + Leskien, August
Zur Kritik der kuenstlichen Weltsprachen
Strassburg: Truebner, 1907
PM 8008.B7

Brugmann, Karl + Leskien, August
Zur Frage der Einfuehrung einer kuenstlichen internationale Hilfssprache
Strassburg: Truebner, 1908 (365+ p.)
PM 8008.B68

Burney, Pierre
Les langues internationales
Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1962, 1966 (128 p.)
PM 8005.B8

Burney, Pierre
Le lingue internazionali
Padova: 1969 (125 p.)
Comenius [Komensky]
[`Panglottia' section discusses the idea of a new, perfect language]

Cornelius, Paul (1933- )
Languages in seventeenth and early eighteenth century imaginary voyages
Geneve: Librairie Droz, 1965 (175 p.)
PM 8009.C6

Couturat, Louis + Leau, Leopold
Histoire de la langue universelle
Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1903, 1907 (576+ p.)
Hildesheim: Olms, 1979 (3rd edition)
PM 8009.C68
[gives descriptions of 60 planned languages]

Couturat, Louis et al.
A plea for an international language
London: Henderson, 1903

Couturat, Louis + Jespersen, Otto et al.
International language and science
London: Constable, 1910 (87+ p.)
[simultaneously published in Odessa as `Mezhdunarodnyj jazyk i nauka' and in Stockholm as `Vaerldssprak och vetenskap']

Drezen, Ernest Karlovich (1900- )
Za vseobshchim jazykom
Leningrad: 1928 (271 p.)
Drezen, Ernest Karlovich (1900- )
Historio de la mondolingvo
Leipzig: 1931 (240 p.)
Oosaka: 1967

Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.
Sovetskaja interlingvistika. Annotirovannaja bibliografia za 1946-1982
Tartu: Tartuskij gosudarstvennyj universitet, 1983
[Soviet interlinguistics -- annotated bibliography for 1946 - 1982]

Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.
Mezhdunarodnye vspomogatel'nye yazyki
Tallinn [Estonia]: Valgus, 1990 (448 p.)
[chronological list of 900+ projects with brief descriptions]

Ferrari, Gaetano
Monoglottica. Considerazioni storico-critiche e filosofiche intorno alla ricerca di una lingua universale
Modena: Vincenzi, 1874 (264 p.)

Fraser, Russell A.
The Language of Adam: on the limits and systems of discourse
New York: Columbia University Press, 1977
P 106.F7

Fraustaedter, Werner
Geschichte der Weltsprache
Leipzig: A. O. Paul, 1908
PM 8008.F73

Fraustaedter, Werner
Die internationale Hilfssprache. Eine kurze Geschichte der Weltsprach-Bestrebungen
Husum: Delff Pres. Petersen, 1910 (128 p.)
[reportedly exhibits a pro-Ido bias]

Funke, Otto
Zum Weltsprachenproblem in England im 17. Jahrhundert
Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1929 (163 p.)
Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, 1978
PM 8563.D3

Gerhardt, C. I. (editor)
Die philosophischen Schriften von Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Berlin: 1890
Hildesheim: 1961 (reprint)
[describes Leibniz' correspondence regarding a universal language]

Gilbert, William
Problems of languages planned for international use: Esperanto and naturalistic projects
[Indiana]: Charters, 1971 (48 p.)
PM 8008

Guerard, Albert Leon
A short history of the international language movement
London: Unwin, 1922 (268 p.)
Westport [Connecticut]: Hyperion, 1979
PM 8008.G75

Hamel, R.
Die reaktionaere Tendenz der weltsprachlichen Bewegung
Halle: 1889

Haupenthal, Reinhard [editor]
Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchsellgeschaft, 1976 (365 p.)
PM 8008.P5

Haupenthal, Reinhard
Katalogo de la planlingva literaturo de la universitata biblioteko Saarbruecken
Saarbruecken: Saarlaendischer Esperanto-Bund, 1977

Hoeg, Tom Arbo
Katalog over interlingvistik litteratur i Universitetsbiblioteket i Oslo
Oslo: Studentenes Esperanto-Forening, 1973

Jacob, Henry
A planned auxiliary language
London: Dobson, 1947
PM 8008.J2
[examines Ido, Esperanto, Occidental, Latino sine flexione, and Novial]

Knowlson, James R.
Universal language schemes in England and France 1600-1800
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1975 (301 p.)
PM 8009.K57

Large, J. A.
The foreign-language barrier: problems in scientific communication
London: Deutsch, 1983

Large, Andrew
The artificial language movement
Oxford & New York: Blackwell, 1985 (239 p.)
PM 8008

Letellier, C.
Etablissement immediat de la langue universelle
Paris: Duprat Pres. Laporte, 1861 (52+ p.)
[general theories on the application and study of a world language]

Macaulay, Thomas C. (1871- )
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930 (453+ p.)
PM 8008.M2
[with an introduction by Elizabeth Daryush]

Manders, Wilhelmus Johannes Arnoldus
Vijf kunsttalen
Purmerend: Muusses, 1947 (386 p.)
PM 8008.M36
[examines Volapuek, Esperanto, Ido, Occidental, Novial]

Meyers, Walter E.
Aliens and linguistics. Language study and science fiction.
Athens [Georgia]: University of Georgia Press, 1980

Monnerot-Dumaine, M. [Marcel]
Precis d'interlinguistique generale et speciale
Paris: Librairie Maloine, 1960 (208 p.)
499.99 M753p

Niemann, W. B.
Dezimalklassifikation und Weltsprache
Berlin: 1933

Noel, Ruth S.
The languages of Tolkien's Middle-earth
Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1980 (207 p.)

Pankhurst, E. Sylvia
Delphos: the future of international language
London: Trubner, 1927 (95 p.)
PM 8008.P3

Pei, Mario (1901- )
One language for the world, and how to achieve it
New York: Devin-Adair, 1958 (291 p.)
[also on phonograph record from Folkways Records, 1961]

Pei, Mario
Wanted: a world language
New York: Public Affairs Committee, 1969 (21 p.)

Ronai, Paulo
Homens contra Babel: passado, presente e futuro das linguas artificiasi
Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, 1964 (161 p.)
PM 8009.R6

Ronai, Paulo
Der Kampf gegen Babel
Muenchen: 1969 (176 p.)

Sack, Friedrich L.
The problem of an international language
Washington & Edinburgh: 1951 (35 p.)
PM 8008

Schubert, Klaus (editor)
Interlinguistics: aspects of the science of planned languages
New York & Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1989 (348 p.)
PM 8004.I58
[mostly pro-Esperanto propaganda]

Shenton, Herbert N. + Sapir, E. + Jespersen, Otto
International communication: a symposium on the language problem
London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner: 1931
PM 8008.I6

Slaughter, Mary M.
Universal languages and scientific taxonomy in the seventeenth century
Cambridge University Press, 1982
PM 8009.S77

Steiner, H.
Katalogo pri la kolektoj de Internacia Esperanto-Muzeo en Wien, Parto 2: Sistema katalogo pri la presajhoj de la Ne-Esperanto Artefaritaj Lingvoj
Wien: Oesterreichische Nationalbibliothek, 1958

Stojan, Petr E.
Bibliografio de internacia lingvo
Geneva: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1929
Z 7123.S87
[about two-thirds is devoted to Esperanto; the rest is a list of items about cryptography, general linguistics, and other planned languages]

Stojan, Petr E.
Bibliografio de internacia lingvo kun bibliografia aldono de R. Haupenthal
Hildesheim & New York: Olms, 1973
[a reprint of the 1929 edition, with a `bibliografia aldono' which is merely a one-page list of Esperanto-oriented bibliographies]

Strasser, Gerhard F.
Lingua universalis. Kryptologie und Theorie der Universalsprachen im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert
Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1988 (291 p.)

Yaguello, Marina
Les foux de langage: des langues imaginaires et de leurs inventeurs
Paris: Editions de Seuil, 1984

Yaguello, Marina
Lunatic lovers of language: imaginary languages and their inventors
London: Athlone Press, 1991
[shallow, insulting, and politically-correct]

Yushmanov, N.
Hundert Grundfehler des Esperanto
Berlin: Reiske, 1926 (40 p.)

chapter 2


The first planned language to attract more than a handful of followers was Volapük (that's Volapuk with a diaeresis over the `u'), invented during a night of insomnia in 1879 by Johann Martin Schleyer. By 1889, there were about 300 Volapük societies or clubs in existence, and 1600 persons had earned the Volapük diploma certifying their competence in the language. Between 200,000 and one million people had some knowledge of Volapük. But eleven years later, at the turn of the century, the number of organized Volapükists had dropped below 1000 and Volapük seemed to be on its way to extinction. However, there are still a few people who remain interested in Volapük; several books about it were published in Germany during the 1980's, and Volapük newsletters were started in 1956 (Volapukagased pro Nedanapukans), in 1979 (Vog Volapuka), and another appeared very recently in the United Kingdom.

Studien zu Schleyers Weltsprache Volapük
Ratibor: 1890

Deiler, J. Hanno
Volapük: short grammar with aids to memory
New Orleans: 1888 (15 p.)
PM 8953.D5x

Hain, Heinrich M.
A complete grammar of Volapük...
London: Carr and Co., 1888

Hansen, Wilhelm
Volapük. Dansk-Volapük og Volapük-dansk ordbog
Kjobenhavn: Blau