Bibliography of Planned Languages (excluding Esperanto)

edited by Richard K. Harrison
copyright 1992-1995 by Richard K. Harrison

Table of Contents

0. Introduction
1. Interlinguistics
2. Volapuk
3. Ido
4. Ro
5. Occidental/Interlingue
6. Novial
7. Interlingua
8. Glosa
9. Modified English
10. Latin and Modified Latin
11. Pasigraphies and Number Languages
12. `a priori' and Mixed Languages
13. `a posteriori' Languages


During the past three or four centuries, proposals for hundreds of planned languages have been published, and some of these projects have managed to attract a number of followers. Many of these language designs are very interesting from a linguistic, philosophical or psychological point of view. Unfortunately, it is often very difficult to find information about planned langauges other than Esperanto. I have compiled this bibliography in hopes of making such information more accessible.

Obtaining the materials listed here ranges from easy to nearly impossible, depending on the item. If a book or brochure is listed in this bibliography with a `call number,' i.e. a Dewey decimal number or Library of Congress classification number, that particular item is likely to be available via Inter-Library Loan; your local library will probably be able to obtain it for you if they participate in the Inter-Library Loan system. Older items can often be obtained by requesting photo-copies from other planned language enthusiasts. A handful of the items listed here are still in print and available from bookstores.

Please inform me of significant errors or omissions so that future versions may be more complete and more useful. (I have not tried to copy every reference from every bibliography that has ever been published on this topic. For the most part, I have limited the items included here to those which could actually be obtained with a reasonable amount of effort, and those which are well-known or historically important within the constructed language milieu.) You can send me e-mail or contact me by snail-post at:
Rick Harrison
Box 54-7014
Orlando FL 32854 USA.

chapter 1


This section lists materials that pertain to language creation in general, the history of planned languages, criticism and comparison of various projects, bibliographies, etc.

Barnes, Myra E.
Linguistics and languages in science fiction - fantasy
New York: Arno Press, 1974 (196 p.)
PS 374.S35

Bausani, Alessandro (1921- )
Geheim- und Universalsprachen, Entwicklung und Typologie
Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1970
PM 8008.B3

Bausani, Alessandro
Le lingue inventate. Linguaggi artificiali, linguaggi segreti, linguaggi universali
Roma: Ubaldini, 1974 (151 p.)
PM 8008.B34

Blanke, Detlev
Internationale Plansprachen, eine Einfuehrung
Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1985 (408 p.)
PM 8008.B53
[a well-organized overview, somewhat pro-Esperanto]

Bodmer, Frederick
The loom of language
New York: Norton, 1985
P 106.B583
[includes an opinionated introduction to the international auxiliary language milieu]

Brugmann, Karl + Leskien, August
Zur Kritik der kuenstlichen Weltsprachen
Strassburg: Truebner, 1907
PM 8008.B7

Brugmann, Karl + Leskien, August
Zur Frage der Einfuehrung einer kuenstlichen internationale Hilfssprache
Strassburg: Truebner, 1908 (365+ p.)
PM 8008.B68

Burney, Pierre
Les langues internationales
Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1962, 1966 (128 p.)
PM 8005.B8

Burney, Pierre
Le lingue internazionali
Padova: 1969 (125 p.)
Comenius [Komensky]
[`Panglottia' section discusses the idea of a new, perfect language]

Cornelius, Paul (1933- )
Languages in seventeenth and early eighteenth century imaginary voyages
Geneve: Librairie Droz, 1965 (175 p.)
PM 8009.C6

Couturat, Louis + Leau, Leopold
Histoire de la langue universelle
Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1903, 1907 (576+ p.)
Hildesheim: Olms, 1979 (3rd edition)
PM 8009.C68
[gives descriptions of 60 planned languages]

Couturat, Louis et al.
A plea for an international language
London: Henderson, 1903

Couturat, Louis + Jespersen, Otto et al.
International language and science
London: Constable, 1910 (87+ p.)
[simultaneously published in Odessa as `Mezhdunarodnyj jazyk i nauka' and in Stockholm as `Vaerldssprak och vetenskap']

Drezen, Ernest Karlovich (1900- )
Za vseobshchim jazykom
Leningrad: 1928 (271 p.)
Drezen, Ernest Karlovich (1900- )
Historio de la mondolingvo
Leipzig: 1931 (240 p.)
Oosaka: 1967

Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.
Sovetskaja interlingvistika. Annotirovannaja bibliografia za 1946-1982
Tartu: Tartuskij gosudarstvennyj universitet, 1983
[Soviet interlinguistics -- annotated bibliography for 1946 - 1982]

Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.
Mezhdunarodnye vspomogatel'nye yazyki
Tallinn [Estonia]: Valgus, 1990 (448 p.)
[chronological list of 900+ projects with brief descriptions]

Ferrari, Gaetano
Monoglottica. Considerazioni storico-critiche e filosofiche intorno alla ricerca di una lingua universale
Modena: Vincenzi, 1874 (264 p.)

Fraser, Russell A.
The Language of Adam: on the limits and systems of discourse
New York: Columbia University Press, 1977
P 106.F7

Fraustaedter, Werner
Geschichte der Weltsprache
Leipzig: A. O. Paul, 1908
PM 8008.F73

Fraustaedter, Werner
Die internationale Hilfssprache. Eine kurze Geschichte der Weltsprach-Bestrebungen
Husum: Delff Pres. Petersen, 1910 (128 p.)
[reportedly exhibits a pro-Ido bias]

Funke, Otto
Zum Weltsprachenproblem in England im 17. Jahrhundert
Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1929 (163 p.)
Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger, 1978
PM 8563.D3

Gerhardt, C. I. (editor)
Die philosophischen Schriften von Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Berlin: 1890
Hildesheim: 1961 (reprint)
[describes Leibniz' correspondence regarding a universal language]

Gilbert, William
Problems of languages planned for international use: Esperanto and naturalistic projects
[Indiana]: Charters, 1971 (48 p.)
PM 8008

Guerard, Albert Leon
A short history of the international language movement
London: Unwin, 1922 (268 p.)
Westport [Connecticut]: Hyperion, 1979
PM 8008.G75

Hamel, R.
Die reaktionaere Tendenz der weltsprachlichen Bewegung
Halle: 1889

Haupenthal, Reinhard [editor]
Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchsellgeschaft, 1976 (365 p.)
PM 8008.P5

Haupenthal, Reinhard
Katalogo de la planlingva literaturo de la universitata biblioteko Saarbruecken
Saarbruecken: Saarlaendischer Esperanto-Bund, 1977

Hoeg, Tom Arbo
Katalog over interlingvistik litteratur i Universitetsbiblioteket i Oslo
Oslo: Studentenes Esperanto-Forening, 1973

Jacob, Henry
A planned auxiliary language
London: Dobson, 1947
PM 8008.J2
[examines Ido, Esperanto, Occidental, Latino sine flexione, and Novial]

Knowlson, James R.
Universal language schemes in England and France 1600-1800
Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1975 (301 p.)
PM 8009.K57

Large, J. A.
The foreign-language barrier: problems in scientific communication
London: Deutsch, 1983

Large, Andrew
The artificial language movement
Oxford & New York: Blackwell, 1985 (239 p.)
PM 8008

Letellier, C.
Etablissement immediat de la langue universelle
Paris: Duprat Pres. Laporte, 1861 (52+ p.)
[general theories on the application and study of a world language]

Macaulay, Thomas C. (1871- )
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930 (453+ p.)
PM 8008.M2
[with an introduction by Elizabeth Daryush]

Manders, Wilhelmus Johannes Arnoldus
Vijf kunsttalen
Purmerend: Muusses, 1947 (386 p.)
PM 8008.M36
[examines Volapuek, Esperanto, Ido, Occidental, Novial]

Meyers, Walter E.
Aliens and linguistics. Language study and science fiction.
Athens [Georgia]: University of Georgia Press, 1980

Monnerot-Dumaine, M. [Marcel]
Precis d'interlinguistique generale et speciale
Paris: Librairie Maloine, 1960 (208 p.)
499.99 M753p

Niemann, W. B.
Dezimalklassifikation und Weltsprache
Berlin: 1933

Noel, Ruth S.
The languages of Tolkien's Middle-earth
Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1980 (207 p.)

Pankhurst, E. Sylvia
Delphos: the future of international language
London: Trubner, 1927 (95 p.)
PM 8008.P3

Pei, Mario (1901- )
One language for the world, and how to achieve it
New York: Devin-Adair, 1958 (291 p.)
[also on phonograph record from Folkways Records, 1961]

Pei, Mario
Wanted: a world language
New York: Public Affairs Committee, 1969 (21 p.)

Ronai, Paulo
Homens contra Babel: passado, presente e futuro das linguas artificiasi
Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, 1964 (161 p.)
PM 8009.R6

Ronai, Paulo
Der Kampf gegen Babel
Muenchen: 1969 (176 p.)

Sack, Friedrich L.
The problem of an international language
Washington & Edinburgh: 1951 (35 p.)
PM 8008

Schubert, Klaus (editor)
Interlinguistics: aspects of the science of planned languages
New York & Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1989 (348 p.)
PM 8004.I58
[mostly pro-Esperanto propaganda]

Shenton, Herbert N. + Sapir, E. + Jespersen, Otto
International communication: a symposium on the language problem
London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner: 1931
PM 8008.I6

Slaughter, Mary M.
Universal languages and scientific taxonomy in the seventeenth century
Cambridge University Press, 1982
PM 8009.S77

Steiner, H.
Katalogo pri la kolektoj de Internacia Esperanto-Muzeo en Wien, Parto 2: Sistema katalogo pri la presajhoj de la Ne-Esperanto Artefaritaj Lingvoj
Wien: Oesterreichische Nationalbibliothek, 1958

Stojan, Petr E.
Bibliografio de internacia lingvo
Geneva: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1929
Z 7123.S87
[about two-thirds is devoted to Esperanto; the rest is a list of items about cryptography, general linguistics, and other planned languages]

Stojan, Petr E.
Bibliografio de internacia lingvo kun bibliografia aldono de R. Haupenthal
Hildesheim & New York: Olms, 1973
[a reprint of the 1929 edition, with a `bibliografia aldono' which is merely a one-page list of Esperanto-oriented bibliographies]

Strasser, Gerhard F.
Lingua universalis. Kryptologie und Theorie der Universalsprachen im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert
Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1988 (291 p.)

Yaguello, Marina
Les foux de langage: des langues imaginaires et de leurs inventeurs
Paris: Editions de Seuil, 1984

Yaguello, Marina
Lunatic lovers of language: imaginary languages and their inventors
London: Athlone Press, 1991
[shallow, insulting, and politically-correct]

Yushmanov, N.
Hundert Grundfehler des Esperanto
Berlin: Reiske, 1926 (40 p.)

chapter 2


The first planned language to attract more than a handful of followers was Volapük (that's Volapuk with a diaeresis over the `u'), invented during a night of insomnia in 1879 by Johann Martin Schleyer. By 1889, there were about 300 Volapük societies or clubs in existence, and 1600 persons had earned the Volapük diploma certifying their competence in the language. Between 200,000 and one million people had some knowledge of Volapük. But eleven years later, at the turn of the century, the number of organized Volapükists had dropped below 1000 and Volapük seemed to be on its way to extinction. However, there are still a few people who remain interested in Volapük; several books about it were published in Germany during the 1980's, and Volapük newsletters were started in 1956 (Volapukagased pro Nedanapukans), in 1979 (Vog Volapuka), and another appeared very recently in the United Kingdom.

Studien zu Schleyers Weltsprache Volapük
Ratibor: 1890

Deiler, J. Hanno
Volapük: short grammar with aids to memory
New Orleans: 1888 (15 p.)
PM 8953.D5x

Hain, Heinrich M.
A complete grammar of Volapük...
London: Carr and Co., 1888

Hansen, Wilhelm
Volapük. Dansk-Volapük og Volapük-dansk ordbog
Kjobenhavn: Blaunfeldt, 1887

Haupenthal, Reinhard
Johann Martin Schleyer. Autor der Plansprache Volapük
Saarbruecken: 1982

Haupenthal, Reinhard
Der erste Volapük-Kongress, Friedrichshafen 1884. Dokumente und Kommentare.
Saarbruecken: 1984 (118 p.)

Haupenthal, R. [editor]
Volapükabled, Faka revuo pri volapukologio n-ro 1
Scheidt: 1985 (20p)

Haupenthal, R. [editor]
Volapükabled, Faka revuo pri volapukologio n-ro 2
Scheidt: 1985 (20p)

Haupenthal, R. [editor]
Volapükabled, Faka revuo pri volapukologio n-ro 3
Scheidt: 1985 (20p)

Haupenthal, R. [editor]
Volapükbled, Faka revuo pri volapukologio n-ro 4
Scheidt: 1988 (88p)

Heijligers, A.
Volapük-Vlaamsch & Vlaamsch-Volapük woordenboek
Haarlem: Cittert, 1890

Huebsch, Samuel
Volapük -- a guide for learning the universal language
New York: 1887 (47 p.)
PM 8953.H83

Iwanowitch, I.
Die Weltsprache Volapük in drei Lektionen

de Jong, Arie (1865- )
Woerterbuch der weltsprache. Vodabuk Volapüka pro Deutanapukans.
Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1931 (494 p.)
PM 8955.J6

de Jong, Arie
Gramat Volapüka. Dabükot balid pelautöl nämaätü e zepü kadäm Volapüka
Leiden: 1931 (113 p.)
PM 8953.J73

Kerckhoffs, Auguste (1835-1903)
Cours complet de Volapük
Paris: 1886 (144 p.)
PM 8953.K39

Kerckhoffs, Auguste
Dictionnaire Volapük-Francais et Francais-Volapük
Paris: Le Soudier, 1887

Kerckhoffs, A. & Harrison, I. H.
Complete course of Volapük
Paris: Hachette, 1888
[on microfiche, Cambridge: Chadwyck-Healey Ltd., 1988]

Kerckhoffs, Auguste [translated by Karl Dornbusch]
Abridged grammar of Volapük, by Prof. Kerckhoffs
Chicago: L. Schick / S. R. Winchell, 1888 (23 p.)
PM 8952.K4x

Kerckhoffs, A. & Pflaumer
Vollstaendiger Lehrgang des Volapük
Halle: Waisenhaus, 1887 (182 p.)

Kirchhoff, Alfred (1838-1907)
Volapük. Hilfsbuch zum schnellen und leichten Erlernen...
Halle: Waisenhaus, 1887 (48 p.)

Kirchhoff, Alfred
Volapük, or Universal language: a short grammatical course
London: S. Sonnenschein, 1888 (47 p.)
408.915 K632

Kniele, Rupert
Oeffentlicher Vortrag... ueber die Ausbreitung der Weltsprache Volapük
Konstanz: 1887
PM 8951.K55

Kniele, Rupert
Das erste Jahrzehnt der Weltsprache Volapük
Saarbruecken: Iltis-Verlag, 1989 (167 p.)
ISBN 3-927613-12-6

Lambert, Louis A.
A grammar of Volapuk : An adaptation of Prof. Kerckhoffs' Cours complet
New York: Russell Brothers, 1888 (151 p.)
PM 8953.K47

Linderfelt, K. August
Volapük, easy methode of acquiring the universal language
Milwaukee: Caspar, 1888 (130 p.)

Moser, Hans
Zur Universal-Sprache: kritische Studie ueber Volapük und Pasilingua
Berlin [Neuwied]: Heuser, 1887 (32 p.)
408.9 M853u

Naether, Arthur
Volapük oder Weltsprache. Mit einem Vorwort von R. Haupenthal
Oschatz 1884
Saarbruecken: 1985 [reprint] (12 p.)

Pflaumer, W.
International Handelsprache: Vollstaendiger Lehrgang des Volapük
Halle: 1887 (181 p.)

Pinth, Jean-Baptiste
Kleine Grammatik der Schleyerschen Weltsprache
Konstanz 1900
Saarbruecken: Iltis, 1983 [reprint]

Rellye, John
Dictionary of the English and Volapük languages
Chicago: L. Schick, 1888 (199 p.)
PM 8956.R45

Scherzinger, A.
A complete English dictionary of the roots of the World-language
Konstanz: 1897 (343 p.)

Schleyer, Johann Martin (1831-1912)
Volapük die Weltsprache - Entwurf einer Universalsprache...
Sigmaringen: 1880 (136 p.)
Hildesheim and New York: Olms, 1982 (reprint)
ISBN 3-487-07278-5

Schleyer, Johann Martin
Weltsprache. Mittlere grammatik der universalsprache Volapük
Konstanz in Baden: Weltsprache-Zentralburo, 1886.

Schleyer, Johann Martin
Gramatik der Universalsprache fuer alle (gebildeten) Erdbewohner
Konstanz: 1888 (9th edition, 176 p.)

Schleyer, Johann Martin
Grosses Woerterbuch der Weltsprache - Vödasbuk Volapüka
Konstanz: 1892 (4th edition)

Schleyer, Johann Martin
Anfangsgruende der Weltsprache Volapük
Konstanz: 1896 (24 p.)

Schleyer, Johann Martin
Konversazion in der Weltsprache Volapük
Konstanz: 1900 (20 p.)

Schmidt, J.
Lehrbuch der Weltsprache Volapük fuer Deutschland...
Frankfurt: 1933

Schmidt, J.
Jenotem valemapuka Volapük
Amsterdam: 1964

Schmidt, Johann
Erste vollstaendige Zeitschriftenliste des Volapük und Literatur-Liste: Unua kompleta listo de Volapük-gazetoj kaj Listo de la Volapük-literaturo
Saarbruecken: Iltis, 1981 (4+56+9 p.)

Schmidt, Johann
Listo de la Volapük-asocioj kaj kluboj...
Saarbruecken: Iltis, 1985 (8 p.)

Schmidt, Johann
Geschichte der Universalsprache Volapük
Saarbruecken: Iltis, 1986 (52 p.)

Schuchardt, Hugo E. (1842- )
Auf Anlass des Volapüks
Strassburg: Trubner, 1888 (48 p.)

Seret, W. A. [translator]
Grammar with vocabularies of Volapük
London: Whittaker, 1887 (420 p.)
PM 8953.S35

Sprague, Charles Ezra (1842-1912)
Handbook of Volapük
London and New York: Trubner, 1888

Sprague, Charles Ezra
The international language: handbook of Volapük
New York: The Office Company, 1888 (3rd edition rev. and cor.)
PM 8953.S7

Toussaint, A.
Volapük die neue Weltsprache
Berlin: Schulze, 1887 (120 p.)

Vero, M.
Diccionario manual Volapük-Español y Español-Volapük
Barcelona: Ortega, 1886 (130 p.)

Vos, J. M.
Gids tot het aanleeren van de Volapük
Rotterdam: 1884

Wood, Marshall W. (1846- )
Dictionary of Volapük: Volapük-English, English-Volapük
New York: Sprague; London: Trubner, 1889 (398 p.)
PM 8956.W6

chapter 3


Ido appeared in the form of an anonymous proposal sent in 1907 to an academic committee considering the merits of various planned languages. The language eventually came to be known by the pseudonym of its author, `Ido' (an Esperanto suffix meaning `offspring'). Ido seems to have enjoyed its greatest popularity between 1908 and 1930, but it still has some active supporters. At least two magazines, Progreso and Ido Vivo, are currently published in Ido. A specimen of Ido: Altestimata Siori! En la jurnalo di via urbo me lektis, ke vi serchas kontoristo, qua savas ultre la registrago anke la franca linguo ed Ido.

de Beaufront, Louis
Grammaire complete de la langue internationale
Paris: Delagrave, 1908 (77 p.)

de Beaufront, Louis
Complete manual of the auxiliary language Ido
London: Pitman, 1909, 1913, 1919 (194+ p.)

de Beaufront, Louis
Elementary grammar of Ido
London: Pitman, 1918 (2nd edition, 24 p.)

de Beaufront, Louis
Ido : petit manuel complete en dix lecons
Paris: Chaix, 1922 (32+ p.)

de Beaufront, Louis
Kompleta gramatiko detaloza di la linguo internaciona Ido
Esch-Alzette: Meier-Heucke, 1925 (232 p.)

de Beaufront, Louis & Couturat, L.
Dictionnaire Francais -- Ido
Paris: 1915

Couturat, Louis
Internaciona Matematikal Lexico en Ido, Germana, Angla, Franca e Itala
Jena: 1910

Couturat, L.
Etude sur la derivation dans la langue internationale
Paris: 1910

Dyer, Luther H.
The problem of an international auxiliary language and its solution in Ido
London: Pitman, 1923 (174 p.)

Dyer, Luther H.
English -- Ido dictionary
London: 1924 (392+ p.)
PM 8393.D92

Dyer, Luther H.
Ido -- English dictionary
London: 1924 (408 p.)

Escuder, M. & Marcilla, P.
Diccionario Ido -- Español
Barcelona: 1964

Feder, K.
Grosses Woerterbuch Deutsch -- Ido
Paris: 1920 (823 p.)

Grammaire Elementaire de la Langue Internationale
Paris: 1907

Les Vrais Principes de la Langue Auxiliaire
Paris: 1909

Hugon, Paul
Practical grammar and exercises
London: Pitman, 1908 (123+ p.)

Hugon, Paul
International phrase book
London: Pitman, 1908 (55+ p.)

Jacob, H.
Esperanto -- Ido vortaro
Moskva: 1934

Jacob, Henry
La strukturo di la linguo internaciona Ido
International Language Society of Great Britain, 1970 (16 p.)
[with an Ido-English-French-German vocabulary]

Juste, A.
Antologio dil Idolinguo, tomo I
Gilly: 1973 (274 p.)

Juste, A.
Antologio del Idolinguo, tomo II
Gilly: 1979 (275+ p.)

Kotzin, B.
Historio kaj teorio de Ido
Moskvo: 1913

Lantos & Prinz & Oehmichen & Voigt
Lehrbuch der Weltsprache Ido fuer Arbeiter
Leipzig: Emancipanta Stelo, 1923 (152+ p.)

Lebasnier, L.
Derivation et composition dans la langue internationale (Ido)
Paris: 1920 (2nd edition)

La lingua internationale I. D. O. e la sua struttura
Catania: 1928
[Ido Reformita. Specimen: Patro nie qu es in cieli, santizat ez tue nom.]

Pesch, Marcel [pseudonym: Persiko, M.]
Dicionario de la 10,000 radiki di la linguo universala Ido
Geneve, New York, Paris: 1964 (631 p.)

Pinth, J.
Lehrbuechlein fuer Anfaenger im Erlernen der Weltsprache Ido
Neudorf: Nicolay und Heck, 1909

Kurzer Lehrgang der Weltsprache Ido
1925 (48 p.)

Sexton, B. C.
Un breve dictionario Ido -- Interlingua
Leeds: 1958

Talmey, Max
Ido: exhaustive textbook of the International Language of the Delegation
New York: Ido Press, 1919 (113+ p.)
PM 8392.T2

chapter 4


Ro was a philosophical language, i.e. a classificational, a priori language in which the first letters of a word indicate what category of meaning it falls into. For example, bofoc means red, bofod means orange, and bofof means yellow. As far as I've been able to determine, Ro became extinct shortly after its inventor died. A specimen of Ro (the Paternoster): Abze radap av el in suda, ace rokab eco sugem, ace rajda ec kep, ace va eco, uz in suda asi in buba.

Foster, Edward Powell (1853-1937)
Cincinnatti: 1908 (8 p.)

Foster, Edward P.
Ro, an international language based on the classification of ideas
Cincinnati: The Ro Company, 1910 (39 p.)

Foster, Edward P.
Ru ro, outline of the universal language
Marietta, Ohio: World-Speech Press, 1913 (96 p.)

Foster, Edward P.
Dictionary of Ro the world language
Marietta, Ohio: World-Speech Press, 1919 (72 p.)

Foster, Edward P.
Roap, English key to Ro
Waverly, West Virginia: Ro Language Society, 1921 (32 p.)

Foster, Edward P.
Alphabet of ideas, or dictionary of Ro the world language
Waverly, West Virginia: Roia, 1928 (160 p.)
PM 8751.F5

Foster, Edward P.
Ro-Latin-English vocabularium dictionary
Waverly, West Virginia: Roia, 1931
PM 8751.F31

Foster, Edward P.
English-Ro dictionary
Waverly: Ro Language Society, 1932 (64 p.)

chapter 5


Edgar de Wahl (1867-1948), sometimes called Edgar von Wahl, was the creator of Occidental. After dabbling in Volapuk, Idiom Neutral and Esperanto, he designed a naturalistic language project called Auli in 1909. In 1922 he published his new system Occidental, which came to be known as Interlingue in 1947. The journal Cosmoglotta, written entirely in Occidental, published 269 editions from 1922 to 1972. In Internationale Plansprachen, Detlev Blanke estimated that the current number of Occidental/Interlingue enthusiasts is less than 100.

Specimen: Interlingue, li modern lingue international, es basat sur li vocabules international, conosset sur li tot terra. Su pronunciation es natural, su grammatic es simplic e regular.

Gar, J.
Deutsch-Occidental Woerterbuch
Reval: Kosmoglott, 1926-28 (460+ p.)

de Guesnet, L. M.
L' Occidental -- langue d'intercomprehension immediate
Paris: Occidental-Buro, 1928 (16+ p.)

Haas, Fritz
Grammatica de Interlingue in Interlingue
Winterhur: 1956 (40 p.)
PM 8401

Matejka, A.
Woerterbuch Occidental-Deutsch und Deutsch-Occidental
Chapelle: 1945

Matejka, A.
Vollstaendiger Lehrgang in Interlingue
St. Gallen: 1954 (2nd edition)

Pigal, Engelbert (editor)
Occidental, die Weltsprache
Stuttgart: 1930

Robert & Pigal
La via al lingue del Europan intercomprension
Wien: Cosmoglotta, 1926 (12 p.)

Sjostedt, C. E.
La axiome de paralleles de Euclides a Hilbert
Uppsala: 1968

de Wahl, Edgar
Radicarium direktiv del lingue international Occidental in 8 lingues
Tallinn: Pres. Uehiselu, 1925 (180+ p.)

de Wahl, Edgar
Spiritu de Interlingue
Cheseaux: 1953

chapter 6


Very few planned languages have been designed by professional linguists. One of these few is Novial, offered in 1928 by the noted linguist Otto Jespersen (1860-1943). A sample of Novial: Un amiko de me kel had studia spesialim okulali kirurgia, examinid in un vespre men vidpovo e informad me ke lum esed totim non-interessant a lo, pro ke lum esed `normal.'

Algeo, John Thomas
Novial: Otto Jespersen's contribution to the international auxiliary language movement
[typescript thesis; 1957; University of Florida library]

Jacob, Henry
Otto Jesperson: his work for an international auxiliary language
London: International Language Society, 1943

Jespersen, Otto
An international language
New York: Norton, 1928 (196 p.)
PM 8685.J4

Jespersen, Otto
Et verdenssprog
Kobenhavn: Gyldendal, 1928

Jespersen, Otto
Novial lexike : international dictionary, dictionnaire international...
Heidelberg: 1930 (251 p.)
PM 8685

chapter 7


The word `interlingua' has many meanings in the constructed language milieu. It can refer to an intermediate `pivot language' used in a computerized translation system, or to any neutral third language used for communication between two parties. Peano's modified Latin language, Latino sine flexione, was also called Interlingua. The literature listed below deals with another language called Interlingua; it was created by Dr. Alexander Gode (1900-1970), partly based upon the research of the International Auxiliary Language Association, and partly upon Gode's own ideas about a `Standard Average European' language.

A specimen of Interlingua text, written by Gode: Io mantene que le idea de un lingua commun pro tote le humanitate, secundo le definition usual, es un conception false, e al plus solo utile a exponer, quasi in un museo, como exemplo de un certe typo de aberration intellectual in le qual nostre patres e nostre avos se perdeva a causa de lor appoiamento enthusiastics del positivismo rationalistic.

Berger, R.
Esperanto au/o/or/oder/o Interlingua
Morges: 1972

Berger, R.
Interlingua, die Welthilfssprache
Morges: 1972

Berggen, E.
Vocabulos supplementari pro usatores de Interlingua
Stockholm: 1974

Dalton, Ric
The anatomy of a failure. Interlingua analysed
Leeds: Publishers Betaland House, 1992 (81 p.)

Gode, Alexander et al.
Interlingua - English, a dictionary of the international language
New York: Ungar, 1951
New York: 1971 (2nd edition)
PM 8400.I5

Gode, Alexander & Blair, Hugh E.
Interlingua, a grammar of the international language
New York: Storm, 1951
New York: 1971 (2nd edition)

Gode, Alexander
Un breve grammatica de Interlingua pro lectores
New York: Storm, 1951

Gode, Alexander
Interlingua a prime vista
New York: 1971 (3rd edition)

Gode, Alexander
Discussiones de Interlingua
Beekbergen: 1983 (2nd edition)

Gopsill, F. P. & Sexton, B. C.
Concise English-Interlingua dictionary
Sheffield: British Interlingua Society, 1987 (282 p.)

Gopsill, F. P.
Interlingua Course for Beginners
Sheffield: British Interlingua Society, 1987

Nordin, John
Svensk - Interlingua ordbok med kort grammatik
Stockholm: Norstedt, 1965

Schild, A. & Ruhrig, H. E.
Woerterbuch Deutsch-Interlingua
Beekbergen: U.M.I., 1992 (518 p.)

Sexton, Brian C.
English-Interlingua: a basic vocabulary
Sheffield: British Interlingua Society, 1978
PM 8400

Sexton, B. C.
Supplementary Interlingua-English dictionary
Sheffield: British Interlingua Society, 1991 (71 p.)

Wilgenhof, K.
Grammatica de Interlingua
Odense: 1973

chapter 8


Glosa is loosely derived from Lancelot Hogben's Interglossa. The earliest version of Glosa was distinctive, consisting of 1000 Greek words taken from scientific terminology. Later versions of the Glosa vocabulary contain a mixture of Latin and Greek words, making Glosa look nearly identical to countless other pan-European language projects. A sample of Glosa text: Komo merca alo vendo u ciela, u kalori de u landa? Un idea perplexi na. (`How can you buy or sell the sky, the warmth of the land? The idea is strange to us.')

Ashby, Wendy & Clark, Ronald
Glosa 6000: 6000 Greek and Latin words and roots which occur in the Euro-languages and international scientific terminology
London: 1983 (48 p.)

Ashby, Wendy & Clark, Ronald
Glosa 1000
Richmond: Glosa, 1984

Ashby, Wendy & Clark, Ronald
Basic dictionary of the international language Glosa
Richmond [Surrey]: Glosa, 1987 (44 p.)

Ashby, Wendy
18 steps to fluency in Euro-Glosa
Glosa, 1989 (2nd edition)

Ashby, Wendy & Clark, Ronald
Introducing Euro-Glosa
Richmond: Glosa, 1990 (36 p.)

chapter 9

Modified English

The English language already has some of the characteristics which many people consider desirable in an international auxiliary language, such as a relatively simple grammar and a vocabulary taken from diverse sources. Unfortunately, English also has its share of irregularities, particulary in its orthography (spelling). Many proposals have been published suggesting that English should be modified in various ways.

Adams, Charles Clinton (1927- )
Boontling: an American lingo
University of Texas Press, 1971
Mountain House Press, 1990
[a deliberately-modified dialect of English spoken in a California town]

Bell, Alexander Melville
World English, the universal language
London: 1888

Braendle, F.
World-English, a new world language: Veltlang, with English words and English grammar, subject to the limitations of the phonetic writing of Veltlang, together with a simple phonetic world-alphabet Seuastikon, modeled after the most primeval characters of writing ever used by the human race
Washington: 1910 (12 p.)

Eldridge, R. C.
Six thousand common English words
Buffalo, New York: Clement Press, 1911 (64 p.)
["the ultimate aim of the work is the introduction of a limited vocabulary for universal use"]

Fiumedoro, Ali
Aligrams. Also in world Sistemizd English.
Boston: 1969

Foster, Edward P.
Fonetik englic
Marietta, Ohio: World-Speech Press, 1915 (15 p.)

Foulk, Ruby Olive
Amxrikai Spek
New York: Little and Ives Co., 1937 (218 p.)
PE 1151.F65

Foulk, Ruby Olive
U.S. (rited in Amerikan Spek)
New York: 1940 (32 p.)
PE 1152.F64

Hale, Horatio
An international language
London: 1890

Hale, Horatio
An international idiom - a manual of the Oregon trade language
London: 1894
[simplified English]

Halliner, A.
Anjelika. The English language, transformed into phonetic orthography
Turlock: 1929 (174 p.)
PE 1150.H3

Hamilton, J. W.
World English, Cosmo-English
St. Paul, Minnesota: 1924 (9 p.)

Hamilton, James Woodburn (1866- )
Papers 1911-1939
[in Library of Congress, Manuscript Division. `Correspondence, manuscripts and printed matter concerning Cosmos English, a proposal to simplify English as the international auxiliary language.']

Immanuel, P.
The universal language
Cairo: 1901
[modified English]

Johnsen, J. E.
Basic English
New York: 1944

Jones, Rowland
The circles of Gomer, or an essay towards an investigation and introduction of English as an universal language
London: S. Crowder, 1771
Menston: Scolar Press facsimile reprint, 1970

Meissner, Lawrence
Anze: simple spelling, simple grammar, simple numbers
Saint Helens [Oregon]: 1965
PE 1150.M45

Ogden, Charles Kay
Basic English: a general introduction with rules and grammar
London: 1931

Ogden, Charles Kay
Basic English versus the artificial languages
London: Kegan Paul, 1935 (184 p.)

Ogden, Charles Kay
Basic English: a general introduction with rules and grammar
London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1937 (6th edition)

Ogden, Charles Kay
The general Basic English dictionary
New York: Norton & Co., 1942 (441 p.)

Ogden, Charles Kay
Basic English: international second language
New York: 1968

Paulsen, Victor Perry (1909- )
Torskript: a practical form of written communication...
San Francisco: 1963
[44 page book with phonograph disc]

Paulsen, Vic
Torskript grafik
San Francisco: Torskript Publishing, 1982

Richards, I. A.
Basic English and its uses
London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1943

Starchevsky, A.
Nastojashchij (zhivoi) vsemirnyj jazyk
St Peterburg: 1889
[English with simplified orthography. Specimen: Thi littl Oliver woz born at Pallas, or Pallas mer, in thi caunti of Longford in Irland.]

Startschewsky, A.
Die wahre (lebende) Weltsprache
St Peterburg: 1890

Ware, Eugene Fitch (1841-1911)
The Glan-ik: a trade language, based upon the English...
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1906 (128 p.)
[based on mono-syllabic English words]

Zachrisson, Robert Eugen
Anglic, an international language, with a survey of English spelling reform
Uppsala: 1932
College Park, Maryland: McGrath, 1970 [reprint] (88 p.)
PE 1151.A3
[reformed spelling; includes references to many similar projects]

chapter 10

Latin and Modified Latin

After the fall of the Roman empire, Latin served as an international language throughout Europe for many centuries. It still does, to some extent, in the Catholic church. The Vatican reportedly publishes a dictionary called Lexicon Recentis Latinitas which gives modern Latin words for such things as `television' and `electricity.' Over the years, many proposals have been published advocating the use of Latin (original or simplified) as an international auxiliary language. Perhaps the most successful project of this type was Giuseppe Peano's `Latino sine flexione,' which enjoyed some popularity in the first half of the 20th century.

Agostini, C. & Marelli, P.
Il Latino, linguo internazionale?
Milano: 1959

Andre, Ch.
Le Latin et le probleme de la langue internationale
Paris: 1903

Aubanel, E.
Premier Congres international pour le Latin Vivant
Avignon: 1956

Aubanel, E.
Deuxieme Congre`s international pour le Latin Vivant
Avignon: 1960

Basso, Ugo
Vocabulario internationale Interlingua - English - Francais - Italiano
Ventimiglia: Revista Universale, 1913 (272+ p.)
[Latino sine flexione]

Beermann, Ernst
Novilatiin, un esaaje de proformaar il latiin a un lingue usaabil...
Leipzig: 1895
[specimen: un oriente-viaaje sin presentat steper al koltaat homes de omne nasioons u presioos heredie del autooro.]

Beermann, Ernst
Die internationale Hilfssprache Novilatin
Leipzig: Dietrich & Weicher, 1907 (212+ p.)
PM 8683.B4
[specimen: Oh tempores, oh mores! I senat sensa lie, i konsulo vidi lie; tamne isto vivi!]

Cassina, U. & Gliozzi, M.
Mailand: 1938
[Latino sine flexione]

Chillet [pseudonym: Colombo, C.]
Manuel du Latin Commercial
Paris: 1904 (192 p.)

Courtonne, E.
Langue internationale Neo-latine
Rouen: Meterie, 1875 (208 p.)

Courtonne, E.
Manuel populaire et abrege de la langue Neo-latine usuelle
Nice: 1885 (48 p.)

de Denis, L. P.
Systeme d'une langue universelle
Paris: 1838

van Diemen, J.
Nove-Latina : systeem eener internat. volkstaal
Noordscharwoude: 1921 (43 p.)

Dominicus, Richardius
SPL: an international language based on simplified Latin
Wisconsin: Dominicus Publishing, 1982 (237 p.)
PM 8815.D66

Eichhorn, Nicolaus
Die Weltsprache, ein neuer Versuch, eine Universal-Sprache mit Zugrundelegung des lateinischen Wortstammes zu bilden
Bamberg: Schmidt, 1887 (177 p.)

Ernst, Dr.
La novi Latine - de li construende Interlingua
Warburg: Werth, 1910

Frandsen, E.
Grammatik des Universal-Latein (Neu-Latein)
Wien: Insel, 1902 (47 p.)

Froehlich, Karl
Grammatik der Weltsprache Reform-Latein
Wien: 1902 (22 p.)

Henderson, G.
Phoenix and the revival of Latin as the international language
London: 1902

le Hir, L.
Langue auxiliaire universelle... langue latine seule pouvant convenir...
Paris: 1867, 1878 (27 p.)

Isly, Fred
Langue Isly, linguum Islianum
Paris: Richard, 1901 (32+ p.)
[specimen: Cujus appetat bonum alienum, amittat merito proprium bonum.]

Kent, Roland G. (1877- )
Latin as the international auxiliary language
Princeton: American Classical League, 1922 (31 p.)
PA 2912.K4

Koleszar, A.
Elöszo az uj nemzetközi vilagnyelvnek tervezett ujlatin (neo-latin)
Budapest: 1917 (16 p.)
[specimen: Le lupo et agno per siti compulsos haben venito ad eodem rivo.]

MacMillan, H. J.
Latinesco, the `orthodox' international language
Birkenhead: 1925 (16 p.)

Martellotta, Vito
Latinulus: grammaticas de latinula linguas
Bari: 1919 (155+ p.)
[specimen: Leos abeo crassa capus circumdata cum longa et ticca comas de fulva colos.]

Migliorni, B.
Esperanto kaj Interlingua
S. Vito al Tagliamento: 1924
[Latino sine flexione]

Möser, Wilfrid
Innsbruck: 1902 (82 p.)

Möser, W. [pseudonym: Austriacus]
Halblatein (Semilatin), ein neues Weltsprache-Projekt
Wien: 1910
[specimen: Sone oculos nos non po videre, sone aures nos non po audire.]

Möser, W.
Interlingua in forma di Semilatin illustrad per cento exemplo
Linz: 1921 (35 p.)

Peano, Giuseppe (1858-1932)
Vocabulario de latino internationale, comparato cum Anglo, Franco, Germano, Hispano, Italo, Russo, Graeco et Sanscrito
Torino: 1904

Peano, Giuseppe
Cavoretto -- Turin: 1927 (24 p.)
[Latino sine flexione. specimen: Linguas de Europa, ab Anglo ad Italo, ab Hispano ad Russo, habe magno vocabulario commune, cum origine in Latino, in Graeco, in Indo-europaeo.]

Pinth, J. B.
Die internationale hilfssprache Interlingua
Luxemburg: Huss, 1911 (16+ p.)

Pinth, J. B.
Deutsch-Interlingua Woerterbuch
Linz: 1912 (94 p.)

Pinth, J. B.
Deutsch-Neulatein Woerterbuch
Luxemburg: 1917 (79 p.)

Pompiati, Karl
Die neue Weltsprache : Nov Latin Logui
Wien: Jasper, 1918 (120 p.)
[sample: O maisen parento, kvi ess in zoeli, vun nomi sagitu.]

Pötzl-Pecelius, K. & Schlögelhofer, A.
Wien: 1952

Rosa, Daniele
Le Nov Latin, international scientific lingua
Torino: 1890
[specimen: Le novlatin non requirer pro le sui adoption aliq congress.]

Volk, A. & Fuchs, R.
Die Weltsprache. Entworfen auf Grundlage des Lateinischen
Berlin: Kuhl, 1883 (104 p.)
[specimen: Not pater vel sas in les cöles, ton nomen sanctöt.]

chapter 11

Pasigraphies and Number Languages

A `pasigraphy' is a scheme for conveying information by means of symbols such as ideograms or hieroglyphs. Some authors have believed that a pasigraphic system would make an ideal international language, although most schemes of this type only exist in written form; there is no way to converse in them. Also in this category are `number languages' which use numerals instead of sounds or symbols to convey information.

d' Alesi, H.
Methode de correspondance internationale, la Langue Numerique
Paris: 1901 (56 p.)

Bachmaier, Anton
Pasigraphisches Woerterbuch Deutsch - Englisch - Franzoesisch
Augsburg: 1868

Bachmaier, Anton
Pasigraphical dictionary and grammar
Augsburg: 1870

Baranovsky, S. I.
Kharkov: 1884

Becher-Spirensis, Johann Joachim
Character pro notitia linguarum universali inventum steganographicum...
Frankfurt: 1661
Z 102.B39

Beck, Cave
The universal character
London: William Weekley, 1657
[on microfilm from University Microfilms, 1981]

Berger, C.
Plan zu einer ueberaus leichten, unterrichtenden und allgemeinen Rede- und Schriftsprache fuer alle Nationen
Berlin: 1779

de Bermonville
Nouvelle decouverte d'une langue universelle pour les negociants...
Paris: 1687

Bermudo, P.
Arithmeticus nomenclator, mundi omnes nationes...
Roma: 1653

Besnier, F.
La reunion des langues, ou l'art de les apprendre toutes par une seule
Paris: 1674

Bliss, Charles Kasiel
Semantography (Blissymbolics), a simple system of 100 logical pictorial symbols
Sydney: Semantography Publications, 1965
Z 102.B55

Bobula, J.
Pasigraphiai szótar a magyar nyelvhez
Budapest: 1886 (117+ p.)

Programme de la Pangraphie
Mannheim: 1807

Casarico, A.
La miografia. Sistema di ecritura internat.
Cordoba [Argentina]: 1902

Caumont, A.
La langue universelle de l'humanite, ou telegraphie parlee
Le Havre: 1866
[with 20 tables in 8 languages]

Charteris, Leslie
Paleneo -- a universal sign language
London: Hodder & Stoughton / Interlit A. G., 1972 (150 p.)
P 135.C47

Dalgarno, George (1626?-1687)
Ars signorum, vulgo character universalis et lingua philosophica
London: J. Hayes, 1661
Menston: Scolar Press facsimile reprint, 1968
PM 8563.D3

Damm, Janne
Praktische Pasigraphie
Leipzig: 1876

Drolet, Cindy
Unipix: universal language of pictures
Imaginart, 1982 (58 p.)
[designed so that tourists can point at the drawings to communicate their ideas]

Dumont de Boneville, F. M.
Noematopasigraphilalie ou methode complete de pasigraphilalie d'apres le systeme de pasigraphie de M. de Maimeux
Paris: 1799

Eckardt, Andre
Die neue Sinnschrift `Safo' als Einheitszeichenschrift der Völker
Starnberg: 1952

Eckardt, Andre & Rossmann, K.
Aufbau der Sinnschrift `Safo'
Starnberg: 1953

Eckardt, Andre & Rossmann, K.
Woerterbuch zur Sinnschrift `Safo'
Starnberg: 1953

Eckardt, Andre
Die neue Weltschrift SAFO
Starnberg: 1962
Z 102.E35

Effel, Jean
Avant-projet pour une ecriture universelle
Paris: 1968 (40 p.)
P 135.E35

Ertl, A.
Babilonska uganka ki kazhe da se lahko razumejo vsi narodi med seboj
Maribor: Tiskarna S Cirila, 1923 (304 p.)

Ertl, A.
Das Babylonische Raetsel welches uns zeigt, dass sich alle Voelker untereinander verstaendigen koennten
Graz: Druck Leykam, 1924 (362 p.)

Espé de Metz, G.
Methode de langue ecrite internationale
Tours: 1923 (28 p.)

Fontana, G. B. A.
De la pasigraphie
Marseille: 1850

Friedrich, F.
Begriffszeichen als Schrift fuer alle
Prag: 1887
[a pasigraphic system called Kokographie]

Gerber, F. A.
Plan einer Pasigraphie oder allgemeine Bezeichnungskunst
Bruchsal: 1832

Glubokovskij, M.
Vsemirnonaucnyj jazyk, vozmozhnosti metod jego sozdanija
Moskva: 1880

Gordin, V. L.
Ao. Russkij slovar tchelovetchestvo-izobretatelya
Moskva: 1920
[specimen: '1'3 -- 0'12'3'3, '2'52'2, '5 ...]

Goshawke, W. & Kelly, I. & Wigg, J. D.
Computer translation of natural language
London: Sigma Press, 1987
[`The SLUNT (Spoken Language Universal Numeric Translation) system... uses an intermediate language consisting entirely of numbers...']

Haag, Karl
Versuch einer graphischen Sprache auf logischer grundlage
Stuttgart: 1902 (69+ p.)
408.9 H111v

Haag, Karl
Die Losloesung des Denkens von der Sprache durch eine Begriffsschrift
Stuttgart: 1930

Hankes, Elmer Joseph
Enterprises of great pith and moment: a proposal for a universal second language
Minneapolis: Camilla Pub., 1982 (100 p.)
PM 8008.H34
[a pasigraphic system called Em Sigh Ay]

Henslowe, W. H.
The Phonarithmon
London: 1840

Hesse, M.
Die Weltstenographie. Universal-Kurzschrift
Elberfeld: 1900

Die Zahlensprache, neue Weltsprache auf Grund des Zahlensystems
Feldkirch: Sausgruber, 1898 (96+ p.)

Hourwitz, Z.
Polygraphie ou l'art de correspondre a l'aide d'un dictionnaire dans toutes les langues
Paris: 1801

Hunkele, J.
Scriptura universalis. Versuch einer kurzen Gemeinschrift fuer alle Volker
Paderborn: 1866

Jekel, Nikolaus
1. Ziffern-Schluessel `Nummer' (76 p.)
2. Cipher-Key `Number' (78 p.)
3. Clef du chiffre `Numero' (76 p.)
Wien: Nummer-Verlag, 1909

Jonain, P.

Jones, Rowland (1722-1774)
Hieroglyfic: or, a grammatical introduction to an universal hieroglyfic language
London: John Hughs, 1768

Kircheri, Y.
Poligraphia nova et universalis ex combinatoria arte detecta
Roma: 1663 (148+ p.)

Kovacshazi, I.
Pantographia. Egyetemes Iras. Ecriture universelle.
Budapest: 1877

Thot, oder allgemeine Sprachschluessel
Berlin [Breslau?]: 1817

Linzbach, J.
Transcendant algebra. Ideographie matematical. Experiment de un lingue filosofic.
Reval: 1921 (32 p.)

de Maimieux, Joseph
Pasigraphie, ou Premiers Elements du nouvel Art-Science d'ecrire...
Paris: 1797

de Maimieux, Joseph [pseudonym: von Morath, J.]
Pasigraphie oder Grundlegung der Kunst die 12 Zeichen so zu schreiben, dass alle Nationen es verstehen koennen
Paris & Altona: 1797

Marryat, F.
Universal code of signals

de Mas, Sinibaldo
L'ideographie memoire sur la possibilite et la facilite de former une ecriture generale
Paris: Duprat & Rothschild, 1863 (194+ p.)

Matraja, Giuseppe
Genigrafia Italiana, nuovo metodo di scrivere quest'idioma affinche riesca identicamente leggible in tutti gli altri del mondo
Lucca: Tipografia Genigrafica, 1831 (154+ p.)

Naether, J. Z.
Versuch einer ganz neuen Erfindung von Pasigraphie
Görlitz: 1805

Neurath, Otto
International picture language: a facsimile reprint of the [1936] English edition
Reading: University of Reading, 1980 (70 p.)
PM 8999

Niethammer, F. I.
Ueber Pasigraphik und Ideographik
Nuernberg: 1808
Orsat, Joseph
Dictionnaire grammatical de la correspondance universelle chiffree
Paris: 1910 (24 p.)

Paic, Mojsije
Pasigraphie mittels arabischer Zahlenzeichen
Semlin: 1859 (36 p.)

Paic, Mojsije
System einer Universalsprache sowohl durch die Schrift (Pasigraphie)...
Wien: 1864

Paic, Mojsije
Pasilalion und pasigraphion
Paris: 1864

von Pirquet, K.
Telekaba -- Zahlenlaute fuer die Ziffernschrift
Wien: 1913 (24 p.)

Pojattina, N.
Eine Vorlesung ueber die Pasigraphie, ihre Berechtigung, ihr Werth und ihre Zukunft
Wien: 1870

Renou, J. M.
Traite de l'art d'ecrire en une langue de maniere a etre entendu dans une autre langue sans traduction
Lyon: 1836

Renzi, A.
Le polyglotte improvise ou l`art d'ecrire les langues sans les apprende avec 3000 verbes conjuges
Paris: Baudry, 1840 (928 p.)
[with English, French, and Italian dictionaries]

Richer, L.
Alfabeto della natura e dell'arte
Torino: 1750

Rieger, W. [Riegler?]
Weltkorrespondenz auf Grundlage der Ziffern-Grammatik
Graz: Styria, 1905 (2nd edition, 196+ p.)

Riem, A.
Aphorismen ueber Sinnensprache vermittels aller sinnlichen und Ideensprachen
Mannheim: 1809

Roller, H.
Weltkurzschrift anwendbar fuer alle Sprachen
Leipzig: 1903

Rossmann, K.
Gesammelte Aufsaetze und Zusammenstellungen zur Entwicklung der Sinnschrift
Tutzing: 1955

Roux, J.
Essai sur une langue universelle ou moyen propose a tous les peuples de correspondre entre eux par des signes ecrites
Sisteron: 1865

Schmid, J.
Von den bisherigen Versuchen eine allgemeine Schriftsprache einzufuehren
Dillingen: 1807

Schmid, J.
Cogitationum completus scientificus Pasigraphiae inserviens
Dillingen: 1807

Schmid, J.
Pasigrafische Versuche
Wien: 1815

Solbrig, D.
Allgemeine Schrift
Berlin: 1726

Ueber Schriftsprache und Pasigrafie
Muenchen: 1805

Stewart, Charles
New universal cipher language -- international correspondence by means of numbers
London: 1874

Timerio, a numerical language
Berlin: 1921

Vater, Johann S.
La pasigraphie
Wien: 1795

Vater, Johann S.
Versuch einer allgemeinen Sprachlehre ... auf Pasigraphie
Halle: 1801

Vater, Johann S.
Pasigraphie und Antipasigraphie oder ueber die neueste Erfindung einer allgemeinen Schriftsprache fuer alle Voelker... ein Versuch.
Weissenfels & Leipzig: 1809 (3rd edition)

Essai sur nouvelle Numeration parlee et projet de langue universelle
Bordeaux: 1859

Vidal, E.
La stenographie ou l'art d'ecrire dans toutes les langues aussi vite...
Marseille: 1938

Warnery, C.
Premiers essais d'une methode de correspondance ecrite universelle
Paris: Pres. Desgrandchamps, 1904 (48 p.)

Wilkins, John (1614-1672)
An essay toward a real character and a philosophical language
London: Gellibrand & Martin, 1668
P 101.W4

World Unification Movement
7 4 '0 7. Sekaigo. Universal Language.
Tokyo: 1967 (232 p.)
[a number-language]

chapter 12

A Priori and Mixed Languages

A priori languages are those which do not borrow their vocabularies from existing languages, but rather invent words artificially to meet certain criteria. Philosphical languages are a priori projects in which the letters of a word indicate its category of meaning; for example, all words pertaining to liquids might begin with the letter L. Languages of the mixed type have a blend of a priori and a posteriori features.

The strength of these languages lies in their systematic methods of word creation and derivation. While many of the a posteriori languages are monotonously similar to each other, the a priori and mixed languages often show great creativity.

Agapoff, Noubar
Unilingua, langue universelle auxiliaire
Paris: 1965

Andrews, Stephen Pearl (1812-1886)
The primary synopsis of Universology and Alwato
New York: Dion Thomas, 1871
Weston [Massachusetts]: M & S Press, 1971 (224+ p.)
[a philosphical language]

von Arnim, Wilhelm
Entwurf einer internationalen Verkehrssprache, gennant Veltparl
Oppeln: Maske, 1896 (36 p.)
[mixed type; specimen: Jekt una zovparl bevnazo namian `veltparl,' ninan I eli greb.]

Barker, Muhammad Ab-dal-Rahman
The Tsolyani language
Minneapolis: Barker, 1978
PM 8875.B37
[a language for a fictitious culture]

Bauer, Georg
Spelin : eine Allsprache auf allgemeiner Grundlage der sprachwissen- schaftlichen Kombinatorik
Agram/Bruxelles: 1888 (72+ p.)
[a priori; yaz = man, yoz = woman, yuz = child. Paternoster: Pat isel ka bi ni sielos, nom el zi bi santed, krol el zi komi, vol el zi bi faked kefe ni siel efe su sium.]

Bauer, Georg
Spelin: a universal language
New York: Strauss, 1889 (28 p.)
PM 8802.B384

Bauer, Georg
Agram [Zagreb]: 1892

Belyj, Andrey (1880-1934)
Glossolalija poema o zvuke
Berlin: Epoxa, 1922 (131 p.)
P 137.B8
[a philosophical language]

Beuthner, A.
Neue praktische Weltsprache Manbab & Weltschrift Mangif
Markneukirchen: 1912 (22 p.)
[specimen: So om mon, ce mon sdon ul sos ils glim...]

Bollack, Leon
La Langue Bleue Bolak -- langue internationale pratique
Paris: 1899 (480+ p.)
[numbers 1 through 10: ven, dov, ter, far, kel, gab, yep, lok, nif, dis. Paternoster: Nea per ev seri in sil! Vea nom ey santigui! Vea regu ey komi! Vea vil ey makui in sil, so il greo!]

Bollack, Leon
Gramaire abregee de la Langue bleue
Paris: 1899, 1900 (64+ p.)

Bollack, Leon [translated by Tischer]
Abridged grammar of the Blue Language
Paris: Pres. Dupont, 1900 (64 p.)
PM 8103

Bollack, Leon
Premier vocabulaire de la langue bleue Bolak
Paris: 1902 (90+ p.)

Brown, James Cooke
Loglan 4 & 5: a Loglan-English/English-Loglan dictionary
Gainesville [Florida]: Loglan Institute, 1975 (2nd edition, 510 p.)

Brown, James Cooke
Loglan 1: a logical language
Gainesville [Florida]: Loglan Institute, 1989 (4th edition)

Decormis, Auguste Joseph
La langue universelle par la graphideologie
Narbonne: 1948

Delormel, Jean
Projet d'une langue universelle presente a la convention nationale
Paris: 1795 (50 p.)
PM 8008.D44
[ava = grammar, alve = vowel, adve = consonant, alzeve = diphthong]

Dietrich, C.
Grundlagen der Völkerverkehrssprache
Dresden: Kuehtmann, 1902 (70 p.)
[Numbers 1-5: tiz, tez, taz, toz, tuz; im = I, em = you]

Donoghue, Timothy J.
Geoglot, a world tongue for travel and commercial use
Boston: International Geoglot Bureau, 1916 (22 p.)
[mixed type]

Dormoy, Emile
Le Balta, langage international conventionnel
Tours: 1887, 1893
[a Volapük variant; numbers 1-5: ba, be, bi, bo, bu.]

Dutton, Reginald John Garfield
Teach Yourself Dutton Speedwords
Teach Yourself Books, 1951
English Universities Press, 1971 [revised]
[A mixed type project of 1-letter, 2-letter and 3-letter words having a vocabulary of 493 roots. Sample: Gra v ai f l if qu v h guv da a ji mer cdex = `Thank you also for the information which you have kindly given to my mother tonight.']

Dutton, Reginald John Garfield
Dutton Speedwords Dictionary
London: Dutton Publications, 1951 [4th edition] (64 p.)

Dyer, Frederick William
The lingualumina or language of light
London: 1875, 1889 (27 p.)
[a philosophical language]

Elgin, Suzette Haden
A first dictionary and grammar of Laadan
Society for Furtherance and Study of Fantasy and Science Fiction, 1988
[a language with feminist overtones, created for a fictitious culture]

Fazekas, J.
Uj vilagnyelv a Homapar
Wien: 1913 (95 p.)
[numbers 1-5: un, tun, zan, fir, bej; al = aluminum, ok = oxygen, vik = week, vit = white, lek = electricity]

Dil o med gutun kaipeni fra nepoz ze gloz doka Gül en Bagdad

International Verkehrssprache Dil oder bestes Verstaendigungsmittel zwischen den Nationen nach dem System des Dr. Gül in Bagdad
Boston: 1893

Stammwörterbuch des Dil
Breslau: Aderholz, 1894

Freudenthal, Hans
Lincos: design of a language for cosmic intercourse
Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co., 1960 (224 p.)
PM 8508.F7
[a symbolic language for making first contact with extra-terrestrials]

Gajewski, Boleslas
Grammaire du Solresol, ou langue universelle de Fr. Sudre
Paris: 1902 (44 p.)

Gigli, M.
Lingua filosofica universale pei dotti preceduta della analisi del linguiggio
Milan: 1818
[numbers 1-5: na, vu, tre, fe, fi]

Groves, Edward
Pasilogia: an essay towards the formation of a system of universal language
London and Dublin: 1846 (120+ p.)

Guardiola, José
Kosmal idioma, gramatika uti nove prata kiamso Orba
Paris: 1893 (96 p.)
PM 8706.5 G8
[numbers 1-10: u, du, tre, kat, hin, sei, set, ot, nou, sen.]

Guerrero, Antonio Julio
Metodo para la ensennaiza de Dey Daynd
Barcelona: 1898
[a philosophical language]

Gurin, E.
Novyj mezh. jazyk prometej prosvetitel
Kiev: 1896
[a philosophical language]

Hankes, Elmer Joseph (1913- )
Ehmay ghee chah : a universal second language : preliminary edition
Minneapolis: Hankes Foundation, 1992 (170 p.)
PM 8008.H34
ISBN 0-925837-10-5

Herpain, S.
Premiere epitre d'Usamen a ses contemporaines. Langage physiologique Lugar
Nivelles: 1843

Hoffmann, L.
Sprache 2000
Dortmund: 1979

Hogben, Lancelot T. (1895- )
Interglossa: a draft of an auxiliary for a democratic world order, being an attempt to apply semantic principles to language design
Penguin, 1943
PM 8398.H6
[sample: Fe acte grapho auto nomino in bibli.]

Letellier, C. L. A.
Application de la theorie du langage qui donne naissance a la langue universelle, aux signes representatifs de la parole par l'ecriture stenographique
Paris: 1854
Century Bookbindery, 1983 (reprint; 539 p.)

Letellier, C.
Course complete de langue universelle
volume 1: Grammaire, 2nd edn 1861 (56+372 p.)
volume 2: Radicaux (13+466 p.)
volume 3: Applications aux sciences (515+ p.)
volume 4: Applications aux lettres, 1855 (539+ p.)
[ege = father, egi = son, ego = brother]

Lodowyck, Francis
The ground-work, or foundation, laid (or so intended) for the framing of a new perfect language
London, 1652
Scolar Press reprint, 1968 (23+ p.)
[on microfilm from University Microfilms International, 1983]
PM 8008.L6

Maldant, Eugene
Chabe Abane -- la langue naturelle
Paris: Jouve, 1886 (136 p.)
[specimen: peme ad Jenev om peme ad Konstans ib as ob ai agig peme ad Süis = Le lac de Geneve et le lac de Constance sont les deux plus grands lacs de la Suisse. ba = dieu, be = religion, za = arbres, ze = fleurs]

Dilpok - manuel de conversation renfermant sous forme de phrases...
Lure: 1898 (256+ p.)
[numbers 1 through 10: ja, dä, ze, fi, lü, su, pö, to, ny. Face ese mirel of sele = le visage est le miroir de l'a^me.]

Le Dilpok en 6 lecons
Besancon: 1904 (46+ p.)

Dic. complet dilpoque-francois
1905 (244 p.)

Menet, Charles
Grammaire elementaire de la langue universelle
Paris: Bonhoure, 1886 (15 p.)
[mixed type; dom = man, édom = woman, vot = word]

Meriggi, Cesare
Blaia Zimondal, lingua universal
Fusi: Pavia, 1884 (247 p.)
[a philosophical language]

Nicolas, Adolphe Charles Antoine Marie (1833- )
Spokil. Langue internationale. Grammaire, exercises, les deux dictionnaires
Paris: Maloine, 1904 (272+ p.)
[numbers 1 through 10: ba, ge, di, vo, mu, fa, te, ki, po, nu. Paternoster: Mael nio, kui vai o les zeal; Aepseno lezai tio mita. Veze lezai tio tsaeleda. Feleno lezai tio bela, uti o zeal itu o geol.]

Nicolas, A.
Le Spokil et les langues significatives
Angers: 1904 (8 p.)
Okamoto, Fuishiki
Universal auxiliary language Babm
Tokyo: 1962 (144 p.)
PM 8090.O42x
[a philosophical language]

Okrand, Marc (1948- )
The Klingon dictionary
Pocket Books, 1985, 1992
PN 1997
[describes the Klingon language invented for Star Trek movies]

Rethy, Andreo
Lingua universalis communi omnium nationum usui accomodata
Wien: 1821 (145 p.)
[a priori; numbers 1-5: A, Ä, O, Ö, E]

de Ria, J.
Palais de 64 fenetres, con fenetres eclairent un Dictionnaire universel...
Petersbourg: 1788 (112+ p.)
[`Lango du Mondo.' specimen: La promiero linio do sez figuro ez letanduo posiblo do tuto lez figuro do la naturo.]

Russell, Barnett
Suma phrase dictionary, the 1000-word universal language
Gordena, California: 1957
PM 8840.R86
[an a priori, non-classificational language]

Russell, Barnett
Suma: a neutral world language
Plainview, New York: 3rd edition, 1966 (118 p.)

Russell, Barnett
Deutscher Schlüssel zu Suma, eine Neutrale Weltsprache
Plainview, New York: 1966 (28 p.)

Sacks, Daniel
Cacone. (A universal approach to universal communication.)
St. Louis: 1960 (17 p.)
[specimen: Mede Ra Rafa Uy Ca Eyay. Yiegpil Di Co Di Medel Eoao Di Minieg Nino.]

de Sarrauton, Henri
Molog, project de langue artificielle
Cannes: 1911 (12 p.)
[16 vowels, 17 consonants; Molog, (monos + logos), means one-language]

Scarisbrick, Joseph
Lips Kith, a world language
Trowbridge: Lansdown, 1919 (141 p.)
[mixed type; Paternoster: Koor Pater, wes-amun per-an wolk-alon, ko-te nom mak-Es-u tek-sak.]

Selbor, L.
Estudio filologico sobre lengua universal
Madrid: 1888 (84 p.)
PM 8504
[a philosophical language]

Serafini, Luigi
Codex seraphinianus
New York: Abbeville Press, 1983 (250 p.)
PN 6381.S4
[samples of a fictitious language; no explanation is provided]

Shaftesbury, Edmund
The Adam-Man Tongue: the universal language of the human race
Washington: Ralston Publishing, 1903

Sivartha, Dr.
Visona or universal and natural language
Chicago: 1887

Sotos Ochando, Bonifacio
Proyecto y ensayo de una lengua universal y filosofica
Madrid: 1851, 2nd edn. 1852 (112 p.)
[a philosophical language; numbers 1 through 5: siba, sibe, sibi, sibo, sibu; `A' designates material things: Aba = element, Ababa = oxygen, Ababe = hydrogen]

Sotos Ochando, Bonifacio
Projet d'une langue universel
Paris: Lecoffre, 1855 (270+ p.)

Sotos Ochando, Bonifacio
Diccionario de lengua universal
Madrid: 1862 (49 + 166 p.)

Sotos Ochando, Bonifacio
Nomenclatura del reino vegetal, acomodada al proyecto de lengua universal
Madrid: 1862 (16 p.)

Streiff, M. [pseudonym: St. de Max]
Le Bopal, essai de langue universelle
Paris: Val et Baudry, 1887 (54 p.)
[gal = terre, galop = continent, galopar = habitant de la terre]

Sudre, Jean Francois (1798-1866)
Langue musicale universelle
Paris: 1866 (480+ p.)
PM 8008.S94
[Solresol uses musical tones rather than spoken words; do-re-do = temps, do-re-mi = jour, do-re-fa = semaine]

Talundberg, Mannus
Perio, eine auf Logik und Gedaechtniskunst aufgebaute Weltsprache
Elberfeld: 1904 (114 p.)
[nama = large, nima = small; dafo = morning, difo = evening]

Tenger, P. [pseudonym: Tghransar]
...ans harlanzar ou Alpha-Gnomonomie de Sehlerai ouvrage
Smyrne: 1864 (34 p.)
[specimen: Rum shai yran, bes lerai vom, shaiz il le sam.]

Urquhart, Thomas (1611-1660)
Logopandectesion, or an introduction to the universal language
London: 1651, 1653
Menston: Scolar Press facsimile reprint, 1970 (40+ p.)
PM 8008.U7

Verheggen, S.
Nal Bino, projet d'une langue universelle simple, facile et harmonieuse
Liege: 1886 (42 p.)
[mixed type?]

Vidal, E. T.
Langue universelle et analytique
Paris: Sirou, 1844 (414 p.)
[ga = geography, gana = Africa, gani = America]

de Visme
Pasilogie, ou de la musique comme langue universelle
Paris: 1806

Wainscott, Elisabeth
UNI, the new international language
Cleveland: Uniline Co., 1975 (345 p.)
PM 8903.W3
[mixed type; all nouns have 3 letters]

Wald, Max
Weltsprache Pan-kel, die leichteste und kürzeste Sprache
Gross-Beeren: 1907 (45 p.)
[specimen: Sai fat in ski, y sanu so nam, so land komu, so viy apsu up glob l sky. Numbers 1-5: en, do, tri, fir, fif.]

Wald, Max
Pan-kel, leichteste Kurzsprache fuer den Weltverkehr
Gross-Beeren: 1909 (92 p.)

Weilgart, W. John (1913- )
aUI: the language of space
Decorah (Iowa): Cosmic Communications Company, 1974, 1979
PM 8008.W4
[an a priori language with only 31 root-words]

Yetter, Robert N.
Lalortel radicarum and introduction
Susquehanna (Pennsylvania): 1959 (22 p.)
PM 8450.Y6

chapter 13

A Posteriori Languages

This section contains references to planned languages which are derived from already-existing languages. In this category we find simplified ethnic languages; mixtures of various languages; and attempts to reform or combine other artificial languages.

Alfandari, Arturo
Cours pratique de Neo
Bruxelles: Brepols, 1961
[specimen: Arivat al ser de ma vivo, ki se esvolvir granparte dun un de plu tumultas e sangas periodos del istor d'omeyo...]

Alfandari, Arturo
Rapid method of Neo
1966 (402 p.)
PM 8670.A43

Amador, Manuel E.
Fundaments of Panamane
Pueblo Nuevo, Panama: Imprenta Barcelona, 1936 (435 p.)
[specimen: Sty máhle le movos rejine sa maskáruh da mendikánte = this time the wicked queen disguised herself as a beggar.]

Baumann, Adalbert
Wede, die Verständigungssprache der Zentralmächte
Diessen vor Muenchen: 1915 (31 p.)
[simplified German]

Beatty, Wilbur M. L.
Qosmiani the new international language
Washington: 1922 (324 p.)
PM 8741.B4
[specimen: Qwuq sensip te al dolori = Where do you feel a pain?]

van Bijlevelt, W. Bonto
Woordenboek en spraakkunst voor de Neutrale Taal
Haarlem: 1903, 1904 (471 p.)
[Idiom Neutral]

Cardenas, C.
Hom-idyomo - proyecto de lengua auxiliar internacional
Wien: Manz, 1921 (324+ p.)
[specimen: Mi opiniay ke la projekto no estay kompleta.]

Cardenas, C.
Hom-idyomo : Outline of an auxiliary international language.
Leipzig: Fischer & Wittig, 1923 (376+ p.)
408.9 C178h

Churruca, A.
Frendo. Ensayo sobre una lengua universal
Tarrega: 1973

Colas [pseudonym: Esperema]
L' Adjuvilo
Paris: Gamber, 1910 (32+ p.)
[sample: Patro nosa qua estan en cielos, santa esten tua nomo.]

Ferranti, Mario
Simplo : internatione lingo
Roma: Tip. Italia, 1911 (140+ p.)

Friedmann, P. L.
Altona: Bagel, 1908 (72 p.)

Gavidia, Francisco
Gramatica de idioma Salvador o sea un posible lenguaje internacional
San Salvador: 1909
[based on Spanish]

de la Grasserie, Raoul
Langue internationale pacifiste ou Apolema
Paris: Leroux, 1907 (217+ p.)
[specimen: Mi ecan orexia calo, mi tsanan apo lima = j'ai bon appetit, je meurs de faim.]

Greenwood, Frederick
Ulla, t ulo lingua ä otrs
London: Miller & Gill, 1906
[specimen: Vus Patra hoo este n ciela, sankted este dus noma.]

Grevor, James Y.
Donne Quichotte, retrato in North American
Variegation Publishing Co., 1966 (59 p.)
PM 8679.G7
[A blend of French, English, and Spanish. specimen: Tengo que hallar this fountainhead d'ou tout l'esprit, la valentia, la delicadeza, in a word el encanto de Don Quijote.]

Halvelik, Manuel
Popido (Elipso de Popola Idiomo). La verda dialekto.
Brugge: 1973? (55 p.)

Hartl, Alois
Auf zur spracheinheit! oder Lehrbuch der Perfektsprache
Linz: 1909, 1910
[Lingua Perfect. Specimen: Alio dramas social deb essere considerat ab illos qui occupa se ad colonizazion.]

Heimer, Helge Waldemar (1890- )
Mondial, an international language.
Lund: 1947
PM 8630.H45
[sample: Il alumavi imediatemente un bon cigar, que il comenzavi da fumar con visible satisfacion.]

Henderson, George J. [pseudonym: Hoinix, P.]
Anglo-Franca, an compromis language for the facilitation of international communication
London: Trubner, 1889 (48 p.)
[sample: The peuples of the Orient trouv they selfs in an embarras encore more grand wen they voul to entam commercial relations with Europe.]

Herkel, J.
Elementa universalis linguae Slavicae
Budae [Budapest]: 1826 (164 p.)
[Lingua Slavica Universalis; specimen: Za starego vieku byla jedna kralica, koja mala tri prelepije dievice: milicu, krasicu a mudricu...]

Dictionary of the Neutral language: Neutral-English & English-Neutral
Rochester, N. Y.: John Smitt, 1903 (304+ p.)
[Idiom Neutral]

Hosek, Ignac (1852-1919)
Grammatik der Neuslavischen Sprache
Kremsier: 1907 (131 p.)
491.8 H79g

Houghton, Stephen Chase
The master language, Magistri, the international language
San Jose [California]: Paraiso Press, 1929 (27 p.)
108.8 H814m

Jaque, R. Stewart
One language
Santa Barbara: J. F. Rowny Press, 1944 (64 p.)
PM 8706.J3
[the language is called Olingo]

Jones, Leslie
Eurolengo, the language for Europe
Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Oriel Press, 1972 (120 p.)

Keyser, K. T. G.
Universalspraket utkast till vetenskaplig Grammatik
Stockholm: 1918, 1926
[based mainly on Scandinavian languages]

Kolkop, E.
Jevicko, Moravia: E. Bohacek, 1913

Konecny, Josef
Slavina, mluvnicka slovanskeho Esperanta
Prague: 1912 (32 p.)

Kovalev, Aleksei Petrovich
Samoucitel mezhdunarodnye naucnago jazyka
[Lingw Adelfenzal, also called Adelfeal; specimen: li menzil fo patr = the house of the father; adelf = brother, tawr = a bull.]

Lakidè, A.
Novyj vscobscij jazyk Fransezin
St. Peterburg: 1893 (32 p.)
[specimen: Mersi, mes, je n'et tro fatige qaq je bas fer bon promenad.]

Liptay, Alberto
La lengua católica
Paris: Roger & Chernoviz, 1890
PM 8008.L5
[numbers 1-10: un, dve, tre, quator, quin, six, sept, oct, nov, dece.]

Liptay, Albert
Langue catholique. Projet d'un idiome international sans const. grammaticale
Paris: Bouillon, 1892 (290+ p.)

Lott, Julius
Eine Compromiss-Sprache als beste und einfachste Losung...
Wien: 1889 (32 p.)
[Mundolingue. Sample: Le posibilita de un universal lingue pro le civilisat nations ne esse dubitabil.]

Magyar, Zoltan
a Romanid nyelv rövid nyelvtana
Debrecen: 1958
[specimen: Moy lingva project nominad Romanid fu publicad ja in may de pasad ano cam scientific studium in hungar lingva...]

Michaux, Alfred [pseudonym: Boningue, A. M.]
Romanal - metode de international lingue
Boulogne-sur-Mer: Boningue, 1909 (44 p.)
[sample: Patro nostri qui est en cieles, sanctificat estas nomine tui.]

Mistrik, Jozef
Basic Slovak
Bratislava: Slovenske Pedagogicke Nakladatel'stvo, 1985, 1989

Mitrovich, Paul
Esay de un Intersistemal vocabular de auxilar lingves
Sarajevo: 1955, 1959
[sample: Mi vad in-curte informat Vos in qual mod mi comenced to interesmi in li problem de un inter-lingve.]

Molee, Elias (1845- )
Plea for an American language or Germanic-English, with a grammar, reader and vocabulary
Chicago: John Anderson, 1888 (304 p.)

Molee, Elias
Germanik English: a scheme for uniting the English and German languages
Bristol: 1889 (64 p.)
PM 8862.M65

Molee, Elias
Pure Saxon English
Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1890 (87 p.)
429 .M73

Molee, Elias
Regular English or Nugotic
Bristol [South Dakota]: 1893 (102 p.)

Molee, Elias
Tutonish: a Teutonic international language
Tacoma: 1901 (96 p.)

Molee, Elias
Tutonish or Anglo-German union tongue
Chicago: Scroll Publishing Co., 1902 (208 p.)
PM 8862.M73
[specimen: Vio fadr hu bi in hevn, holirn bi dauo nam, dauo reik kom, dauo vil bi dun an erd, as it bi in hevn.]

Molee, Elias
Tutonish : a teutonic international language
Tacoma: 1904 (96 p.)

Molee, Elias
Tacoma: 1906 (128 p.)
[title sometimes given as ``Niu Teutonish'' or ``nu teutonish'']

Molee, Elias
Tacoma: 1915 (48 p.)
408.92 M732a

Nilson, A.
Il dialekt Centralia
Gefle: 1899
[specimen: El auctor pretend un bene volent attention pour cecie sistem, car it is progressed from diligent etudi in Volapük, Esperanto, Anglo-franca lingua...]

Obana, Yosio (1899-1991)
Pacez (Lingue por Pace)
Tokyo (?): 1983
[Specimen: voyel-sufixi esá sufixi consistand des 11 voyeli, qui definá a parloparti ou a conjugasion de verbi.]

O'Connor, Charles Leo
American, the new Pan-American language
Buffalo, New York: Hausauer-Jones, 1917 (87 p.)

Pham Xuan Thai
Frater (lingua sistemfrater)
Saigon: Tu-Hai, 1957 (275 p.)
PM 8568.P45
[pan-Asian grammar, pan-European vocabulary]

Puchner, Johann E.
Gramatica di Nuove-Roman lingua universal
Linz: 1897 (78 p.)
[specimen: Ma caloros cuor sub capo fred, esti sia rar union e lo rarism di tode fenomenes.]

Puchner, Johann E.
Woerterbuch der Weltsprache Nuove-Roman
Linz: 1908 (412+ p.)

Raymond, H. E.
The elements of Esperido
Kalamazoo: 1924-27 (14 p.)
[sample: Nia patro kiu estas en himelo, santa estu zia nomo.]

Riehm, R. [pseudonym: Pleyer, Mario]
Unitario : Entwurf einer Universalsprache
Bensheim: Unitario Press, 1989 (214 p.)
ISBN 3-9802167-1-3

Riehm, R. [pseudonym: Pleyer, Mario]
Unitario per medio de picturoyn
Bensheim: Unitario Press, 1990 (126 p.)
ISBN 3-9802167-5-6
[specimen: la flamo della cutsino estas caliente; la akva in la caserola tambjen estas caliente.]

Rosenberger, Woldermar
Woerterbuch der neutral-sprache Idiom Neutral
Leipzig: Haberland, 1902 (314+ p.)
[sample: Nostr patr kel es in sieli! Ke votr nom es sanktifiked.]

Rosenberger, Woldermar
Lehrgang der praktischen Weltsprache Reform-Neutral
Zu"rich -- Leipzig: 1912
[sample: El Reform-Neutral es un lingue artificiel multe convenabl pro relationi international.]

de Rudelle, Lucien
Pantos Dimou Glossa (ou Cosmoglossa), grammaire primitive d'une langue commune a tous les peuples...
Bordeaux: Crugy, 1859 (68+ p.)
[vocabulary based on Latin, Greek, and the Romance languages. The definite article has 30 different inflected forms. Numbers 1-10: ono, dyo, tro, tetro, pento, ekso, epto, okto, nono, deko. specimen: Potere no konsolar dzam kalipsoa dol eksito did Ylise.]

Sainz Lopez-Negrete, Luis
Falu Lusane : lusane gamato : lusane-sepane-potune-negune palobuko
Mexico: Edamex, 1988 (3rd edition)
PM 8597.S3x
[a language named Lusane, with an a posteriori vocabulary in which borrowed words are modified so that all syllables are Consonant-Vowel]

de Saussure, René
Fundamento de la internacia lingvo Esperantida
Bern: Pres. Buechler, 1919 (1st edition, 83 p.)
Neucha^tel: Forum, 1922 (164+ p.)
[sample: Por homo vere civilizita, filozofo or yuristo, la kono de la latina linguo estas dezirebla...]

de Saussure, René [pseudonym: Antido]
Fundamenta krestomatio de la internacia lingvo Nov-Esperanto
Bern: 1925, 1926 (48 p.), 1928 (40+ p.)
[specimen: La feino. Una vidvino avis du filinun. La pli olday estis ti simila al la patrino per sia karaktero ey vizajo...]

de Saussure, René
Esperanto II
Bern: 1939
[specimen: La floron estas la mara muskon, la algon ey la kolora konkon trovata sur la fondo de la gulfeton dezerta.]

Steiner, Paul
Elementargrammatik nebst Übungsstücken zur Gemein- oder Weltsprache Pasilingua
Neuwied: 1885 (80 p.)
[specimen: Patro miso, quo er in coela, nama tüa sanctore.]

Talmey, Max (1867- )
Arulo, text book of the universal language, with exercises...
New York: Ilo Press, 1925 (48 p.)
PM 8085.T3

Vengerov, V.
Omo - jazyk celoveka ucebnik vsemirnogo jazyka
Sverdlovsk: 1926 (244 p.)
[specimen: Tak mi diras noh un mal, ke qio lomo devas parley ome, qor vere `loma' lingvo inter tuta cetera lingvi...]

Weferling, Erich
Unesal, interlingu kompromis Esperanto-Ido-Occidental
Braunschweig: 1923 (12 p.)
[specimen: Mi es konvinkat, ke li definitiv form del lingu internasional va es maks proksim ad ti ci projet.]

Weferling, Erich
Standard Gramatik del International Auksiliari Linguo - INTAL
Braunschweig: 1968 (36 p.), 1970 (34 p.), 1978 (38 p.)
PM 8409.W4

Weferling, Erich
Komparation inter Esperanto e INTAL in kontrapozati tabeles
Braunschweig: 1978 (9 p.)

Wood, Thomas
Interling: a new interlanguage
Cheshire: 1992 (11 p.)